Norfolk Island Pine

Araucaria heterophylla

Family: Araucariaceae          Origin: Norfolk Island

People in climates where this tree can’t be grown outside (most notably in the US) grow what they think are Norfolk Island Pines in pots in their homes. Unfortunately, they’re usually mistaken. What is mostly available as a houseplant is actually the Cook Pine (Araucaria columnaris). But for the folks living in temperate, tropical areas, true Norfolk Island Pines grace suitable growing areas and are certainly sights to behold. Not technically a pine tree scientifically speaking, this tree’s overall appearance and form still lend it to look very pine-esque, especially when young.

Norfolk Island Pine trees

This species is labeled as “vulnerable” and is a threatened species in its native island of Norfolk Island due to heavy harvesting in the past few hundred years. Protective measures have been taken to protect what’s left of this tree in its endemic homeland.


Growth Form

Norfolk Island pines have a monopodial growth form, like most conifers. That is, they have a single trunk from which branches grow. The growth form is caused by strong apical dominance, growth occurring mainly towards the tip of the trunk.

As mentioned above, when this tree is young, it looks very much like a pine tree. Perfect triangle silhouette with evenly spaced branches, this tree looks great even when most other coastal trees that it shares its native home with are twisted and mangled by prevalent winds. They grow tall at maturity, around 65 metres when mature.

Norfolk Island pine growth formTrunk

Single thin trunks are vertical and tall, which made them valuable as masts for ships during early colonization of the island. Unfortunately, it was found they had a tendency to break, which lowered their value somewhat.

A Norfolk Island pine tree trunk, showing scarring where branches have abscised.


Young trees have different shaped leaves from older trees. When young, the leaves are awl-shaped, about a centimeter long and overlap each other in whorls on stems. Older trees have incurved 5-10mm long needle like leaves. Thicker leaves that look like scales form in the upper crown of the tree.


Although Norfolk Island pine trees are not actually pine trees, they are still conifers. They bear woody cones similar to most pine trees in that they open out to spread their seeds while still on the tree.

Another misnomer, and one they also share with pine trees, is their cones being called male and female flowers. Conifers do not bear flowers. They branch off, on the phylogenic tree, specifically because they do not bear flowers (gymnosperms rather then angiosperms). There cones do, however, have male and female gender. Being on different trees, they are dieocious, though there are occasional trees which are not.

Norfolk Island pine tree foliage.Fruits

Female flowers give way to squat globe-shaped cones that are about 12cm long and 14cm wide. They take 18 months to mature, and then they disintegrate and release edible seeds that look like nuts.



Many of these trees are started from clippings for pot culture, but this method also works for landscape plants. Take 2-3 inch new growth stem cuttings and root them in rooting medium. Keep them warm and moist until they form roots. They can also be started from seed.


While highly adaptable to different climates, this tree does especially well in areas where many other trees do not. Adapted to marine winds, this tree relies on the salty spray from ocean winds. It requires nutritionally lacking deep sand for soil. They require constant moisture without standing water. They don’t do well in very high winds, but do fine in consistent ocean breezes and some moderate winds.
In Brisbane, Norfolk Island pines are fine without added amendments to soil, but young trees do benefit from some added fertilizer to help new growth after a few weeks of being planted. Protect new seedlings for a year or two after transplant from high winds and sun that’s too direct. After establishing, this tree needs relatively no care.

Norfolk Island pine tree branches

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  1. Liz Binet says

    I cannot find any information online on the root system of my norfolk pine tree. It is now extremely tall and the trunk is now 3.100 centimetres in circumferance. . I am confident if I try to build a hole for a pool a metre and a half from the trunk it will mean some of the root system will be destroyed. People tell me it has a deep tap root – but I cannot find confirmation of this anywhere. It is still growing. . Are you able to assist me with information re the roots please?

  2. Jill says

    Hi David,
    I have a very tall Norfolk Pine hard up against the House footing. Is continuued root growth going to be a problem. The tree is about 9 metres tall.

  3. Sharron Blundell says

    Is there any preparation needed for the Norfolk pine seed,/nut or do you just perl husk and eat

  4. Liz says

    Hello David,
    Thanks for this great post – it’s very informative. We have a Norfolk Pine in our garden in the Manly Council area of Sydney. When we moved in ten years ago it was established and in that time it has become bigger (we can really see the difference when we look at old photos as you can see the change in the size of the trunk). We have designed this part of the yard around the tree and have no intention of removing it, it’s part of the family!! The needles are a pain but we deal with them…unfortunately I find they don’t do well in the compost!!

    One thing I struggle with is planting beneath it’s canopy. I’m unclear if anything will ever grow there because of the dropping needles and the soil condition.

    Could you please give me some advice re planting – will anything ever grow beneath it?

    Thanks Liz

  5. Terry says

    David, Could you please explain why local councils have the burning desire to plant Norfolk Island Pines on the coastline. They are not native to Australia and do block water views of residents. Councils seem to be adamant that this is the only suitable tree for the coastal strip of Aus. Surely there are alternative plantings that grow to a lower height and would not block views. Would appreciate your comments.

  6. ros schreurs says

    Can you pls tell me how often norfolk island pines set their cones. I am interested because I wonder if it’s usually around every 7 years or so, or if it’s more to do with the coming weather conditions. Any thoughts?
    Regards Ros

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